Any issue or combination of difficulties with perception, motor production, or phonological representation of speech sounds and speech segments—including phonotactic rules defining acceptable speech sound sequences in a language—are referred to as speech sound disorders. Disorders of the speech sound can be either biological or functional in origin. Organic speech sound problems are caused by underlying structural, sensory-perceptual, or motor-neurological causes. Disorders of the functional speech sound are idiopathic, meaning they have no recognized cause. Functional speech sound disorders include those that affect the linguistic components of speech production as well as those that affect the motor generation of speech sounds. Both of these conditions have historically been known as phonological disorders and articulation problems. The focus of articulation disorders is on production problems (such as distortions and substitutions) in specific spoken sounds. The focus of phonological disorders is on foreseeable, rule-based mistakes that influence several sounds, such as fronting, halting, and final consonant deletion.
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